The 4C Study is following 704 patients aged 6 to 17 years with a glomerular filtration rate of 10 to 60 ml/min/1.73 m² in 55 pediatric nephrology units in 12 European countries.
The structure and function of the heart and the large arteries is regularly tested by sensitive, non-invasive methods and the findings are compared to a large group of healthy children.
Multiple potential clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and medication-related risk factors are monitored prospectively and will be related to the cardiovascular status of the patients.
A genome-wide association study will allow to identify common genetic variants associated with the progression of cardiovascular alterations and renal failure..
Patients are followed on when they enter end-stage kidney disease. The effects of dialysis and transplantation on cardiovascular health are addressed in separate sub-studies (4C-D, 4C-T).
Effects of kidney failure in childhood on the fine structure of artery and other tissues will be investigated in biopsy studies (4C-A, 4C-P).
Long-term renal and cardiovascular burden and outcomes will be assessed in a self-reported online survey based 4C-TRACK study.