The Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease Study
The 4C Study is the largest cohort study investigating the causes and natural history of cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease on their transition to adulthood.
Why did we start this study?
Adults with chronic kidney disease are at high risk of suffering from cardiovascular events even at young age.
We started the 4C Study to tease out the factors that contribute to early cardiovascular disease development in children with chronic kidney disease.
Current study status
The 4C Study has explored the development of early cardiovascular disease in 700 children with chronic kidney disease for the past 8 years. Study participants underwent comprehensive clinical and laboratory examinations twice a year, and cardiac and vascular imaging studies once a year.
The simple process to continue the study
Starting from 2019 we are following study participants with annual surveys and an option to come back for cardiovascular examinations every 3 years. The study is expected to continue for 10 additional years.
So far the 4C Study helped us to learn a lot about the development, progression and complications of chronic kidney disease in children. The information collected in the study provides unique insights into the development of heart and vessel disease in diverse groups of children with chronic kidney disease.
More than 50+ centers
More than 50 centers from 12 European countries participate in the 4C StudyFind a center